The types of texts are classified according to their structure, purpose and purpose.
In general, the textual typology is divided into: narrative, descriptive, dissertative, expositive and injunctive text.
The fundamental mark of the Narrative Text is the existence of a plot, from which the actions of the characters, marked by time and space, develop.
Thus, the narrative has a narrator (who presents the plot), the characters (main and secondary), time (chronological or psychological) and space (place that develops the story).
Its basic structure is: presentation, development, climax and outcome.
The Descriptive Text exposes appreciations and observations, so that it indicates aspects, characteristics, unique details and details, whether of an object, place, person or fact.
In this way, some relevant linguistic resources in the structuring of the descriptive texts are: the use of adjectives, verbs of connections, metaphors and comparisons.
The Dissertation Text seeks to defend an idea and, therefore, is based on the argumentation and the development of a theme.
For this, its structure is divided into three fundamental parts:
- thesis (introduction): defines the basic model to present an idea, theme, subject.
- antithesis (development): explores arguments against and for.
- new thesis (conclusion): suggests a new thesis, that is, a new idea to conclude its reasoning.
- The argumentative and argumentative texts, besides being an opinionated text, seek to persuade the reader.
The Expository Text intends to present a theme, from resources such as conceptualization, definition, description, comparison, information and enumeration.
Thus, a lecture, seminar or interview are considered expository texts, whose central objective of the issuer is to explain, discuss, explain about a subject.
They are classified in: informative-expository text (transmission of information) or expository-argumentative text (defense of opinion on a theme). Other examples of expository texts are dictionaries and encyclopedias.
The Injuntivo or instructional text is based on the explanation and the method for the accomplishment of something. Examples include: a cake recipe, medicine package insert, instruction manual and advertisements.
Thus, one of the outstanding linguistic resources of this type of text is the use of verbs in the imperative, to indicate an “order”.
As an example we have: cake recipe “mix all ingredients”; “take two capsules a day”; instruction manual “press the yellow key”; advertisements “wear that shirt”.